A Yield Curve is a graph of the yields (interest rates) of bonds with different maturities. Short terms bonds generally have a lower yield because they are most liquid.
The intrinsic value approach or the fundamental analysis of stocks prices is equal to the dividend over the interest rate. This approach is based on predictions of future cash flows and profitability.
The interest rate risk structure for interest rates is called the Risk Premium or Risk Spread. It is the extra interest that a risky asset must pay relative to a risk-less asset since investors demand compensation for taking on higher risk.
The goal of Financial Institutions is to provide access to financial markets, a.k.a. financial intermediaries (they serve as middlemen) and indirect finance. Most financial institutions are regulated by the government.
The concept of Asymmetric Information centers around a situation in which there is unequal knowledge between each party to a transaction, that one party has better information than the other party. This type of asymmetry creates an imbalance in a transaction.
The Theory of Storage describes features observed in commodity markets. Here are some basic terminology that needs to be understood to understand the Theory of Storage.