Most of us are well-acquainted with the idea of a monopoly: when there is only one firm prevailing in a particular industry. However, from a regulatory view, monopoly power exists when a single firm controls 25% or more of a specific market.
A price ceiling (in other words, a maximum price) is put into effect when the government believes the price is too high and sets a maximum price that producers can charge; this price must lie below the equilibrium price in order for the price ceiling to have an effect.
The marginal cost of production is an economic concept that describes the increase in total production cost when producing one more unit of a good. It is highly useful to decision-making in that it allows firms to understand what level of production will allow them to have economies of scale.
Consumer Surplus is the area under the demand curve (see the graph below) that represents the difference between what a consumer is willing and able to pay for a product, and what the consumer actually ends up paying.
Total revenue is the amount of money that a company earns by selling its goods and/or services during a period of time (e.g. a day or a week).
In the field of economics, marginal analysis entails the examination of the final or next unit of cost or of consumption. It involves a cost-benefit analysis of business decisions—that is, understanding whether a particular decision provides enough benefits to be worth the cost of that decision.