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Macroeconomics

Lorenz Curve and Gini Coefficient

The distribution of Income in an economy is represented by a Lorenz Curve and the degree of income inequality is measured through the Gini Coefficient. One of the five major and common macroeconomic goals of a government is the equitable (fair) distribution of income. The Lorenz Curve The Lorenz Curve, the actual distribution of income…
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Say’s Law

Say’s Law is short for “Say’s Law of Markets,” which states that the production of goods produces its own demand. In other words, supply creates its own demand. People are paid to create goods and/or services, and can then spend that money on other goods/services. And there’s no point in holding onto money for long periods without spending it,…
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Components of Aggregate Demand

There are four components of Aggregate Demand (AD); Consumption (C), Investment (I), Government Spending (G) and Net Exports (X-M). Aggregate Demand shows the relationship between Real GNP and the Price Level. Four Components of Aggregate Demand Any increase in any of the four components of aggregate demand leads to an increase or shift in…
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The Multiplier Effect

The Multiplier Effect is defined as the change in income to the permanent change in the flow of expenditure that caused it. In other words, the multiplier effect refers to the increase in final income arising from any new injections. Injections are additions to the economy through government spending, money from exports, and investments made by…
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Money Multiplier

The money multiplier describes how an initial deposit leads to a greater final increase in the total money supply. Also known as “monetary multiplier,” it represents the largest degree to which the money supply is influenced by changes in the quantity of deposits. It identifies the ratio of decrease and/or increase in the money supply in relation…
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The Fisher Effect

The Fisher Effect demonstrates the connection between real interest rates, nominal interest rates, and the rate of inflation. According to the Fisher Effect, the real interest rate is equal to the nominal interest rate minus the expected rate of inflation (note that in this equation, all rates used should be compounded). The result, in practice,…
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