Healthcare is a complicated topic. Policies are often difficult to implement, and there are many stakeholders to consider. Recently, the U.S. saw the passage of the historic Affordable Care Act (ACA) which was the most significant piece of health policy legislation in fifty years. To understand the impact of the Affordable Care Act, we must first understand the US healthcare system.
Introduction to the US healthcare system
There’s a saying about healthcare systems. Three factors are essential to any healthcare system, but you can only pick any two:
Quality is the level of how effective services are. It is about “doing the right thing and doing it right.” Quality is a measure of how good the medical care is.
2. Cost (aka financing)
These are the sources and uses of money that pay for healthcare services. It includes money to pay providers, drugs, medical buildings, etc.
Access includes the affordability, availability, accommodation (provider is organized to meet client’s preferences), accessibility (you have insurance and coverage but no provider) and acceptability (the extent to which the patient is comfortable with the provider) of the healthcare system. If you meet all 5 As then you have access to healthcare services.
It is a question of whether people can see providers and get the services they need.
There are a few rare policies that have an impact on all three factors. For example, essential childhood immunization policies. By having a mandatory childhood immunization policy, we can improve quality of healthcare, it lowers the long term cost of care and improves access to healthcare.
The five major branches to the US healthcare system
These are the people who deliver the care. They form a large subset of the different types of providers such as hospitals, device makers, physicians, etc.
These are people who directly pay for medical services (such as insurance companies), but it could be individuals in certain cases.
These are the people who buy health insurance (such as businesses and individuals).
These are the actual consumers of healthcare services.
These are the people who work in various government agencies such as the Center for Medical Services (CMS) and they directly shape healthcare policy.