medicare advantage

Medicare Advantage

The US promoted Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) and people wanted HMOs to be a part of the Medicare program. Through the HMO Act, employers with 50 or more employees were required to offer HMO plans. Then the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) decided to demonstrate HMO plans for Medicare patients. These private plans take...


Medicare is one of the most important payers in the U.S. health care system. It is health insurance for the elderly and has four parts - A, B, C & D. Traditional Medicare (Part A & B) During the Great Depression, hospitals began noticing that people couldn't afford the care as treatments were becoming more...
Aggregate demand and Aggregate Supply

Introduction to Aggregate Demand And Aggregate Supply

In Economics, Aggregate Demand And Aggregate Supply are the macroeconomic view of the country's total demand and supply curves. Aggregate Demand Aggregate demand (AD) is the total demand for final goods and services in a given economy at a given time and price level. Aggregate Demand Formula Aggregate Demand is the total of Consumption, Investment,...

Four Components of Aggregate Demand

There are four components of Aggregate Demand (AD); Consumption (C), Investment (I), Government Spending (G) and Net Exports (X-M). Aggregate Demand shows the relationship between Real GNP and the Price Level. Four Components of Aggregate Demand Any increase in any of the four components of aggregate demand leads to an increase or shift in the aggregate demand...
financial intermediaries

Financial Intermediaries

Afinancial intermediary is a financial institution that connects surplus and deficit agents. The classic example of a financial intermediary is a bank that consolidates deposits and uses the funds to transform them into loans. The job of financial intermediaries is to connect borrowers to savers. For example, A bank loan is a form of indirect...
Provisions in the Glass-Steagall Act

The Glass-Steagall Act

The Glass-Steagall Act (1933) separated depository institutions from investment banks and limited securities, activities, and affiliations within commercial banks and securities firms. In 1933, in the wake of the 1929 stock market crash and during a nationwide commercial bank failure and the Great Depression, two members of Congress put their names on what is known today as the...

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