The concept of seasonal unemployment describes a situation when workers experience unemployment at certain times of the year when the demand has decreased. Although unemployment is always problematic, the upside is that seasonal unemployment doesn’t last–eventually, the peak season of a given industry arrives and many workers become employed once again.
Otherwise known as an expansionary gap, an inflationary gap is the gap between an economy’s full-employment real GDP and its real GDP. In other words, the inflationary gap refers to the difference (that is, the gap) between the actual gross domestic product (GDP) and the GDP that would exist if the economy were at full employment (this is also known as the “potential GDP”).
The nominal interest rate is the interest rate that has not yet had inflation accounted for in the overall number. This interest rate will be quoted on things like loans, bonds, and the like. It is the rate “as advertised,” which will not necessarily reflect the reality of how the interest rate will actually manifest as influenced by inflation, compounding interest, taxation, fees, and other such factors.
One of the five major and common macroeconomic goals of most governments is the equitable (fair) distribution of income, which is a crucial element of a functioning democratic society. With regard to this macroeconomic goal, the distribution of income or wealth in an economy is represented by a Lorenz curve.
A progressive tax involves taxing lower-income citizens at a lower rate than higher-income citizens. As a member of a society with a progressive tax, the tax rate you are placed in is based on your income—whether you can afford to pay a certain tax level. Higher-income earners have a greater percentage of their wealth and income taxed.
The crowding out effect is a prominent economic theory stating that increasing public sector spending has the effect of decreasing spending in the private sector. In other words, according to this theory, government spending may not succeed in increasing aggregate demand because private sector spending decreases as a result and in proportion to said government spending.
The money multiplier describes how an initial deposit leads to a greater final increase in the total money supply. Also known as “monetary multiplier,” it represents the largest degree to which the money supply is influenced by changes in the quantity of deposits. It identifies the ratio of decrease and/or increase in the money supply in relation to the commensurate decrease and/or increase in deposits.