Expansionary monetary policy is a form of macroeconomic monetary policy that seeks to amplify economic growth and aggregate demand. In order to do so, regulatory authorities like central banks “loosen” monetary policy by increasing the money supply and/or lowering interest rates.
Inflation is the sustained increase of the price level. The rate of inflation is the change in general price levels over a period. When the price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services.
Diseconomies of scale are the product of decreasing returns to scale. In other words, they happen when a business grows to the point that its per-unit costs begin to rise, rather than continuing to decrease as with economies of scale.
Capitalism is an economic system in which private individuals and/or companies own the four factors of production. The four factors are land, capital, land/natural resources, and entrepreneurship.
Perfect competition or pure competition is a type of market structure. It is important to note that this form of market structure does not actually exist in the real world and is thus considered to be theoretical.
The demographic transition model (DTM) shows shifts in the demographics of a population during economic and social development. This transition is two-fold: both death and birth rates go from high to low over time as development progresses.