Comparative Advantage

Adam Smith had advocated the theory of Absolute Advantage, where he argued that a country should produce a good if it can produce more of the good with the same or fewer resources than another country. This theory is different from Comparative Advantage. David Ricardo, another Economist, suggested that a country only needs to have Comparative…
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Proportional Tax

A proportional tax is a kind of income tax wherein all taxpayers are taxed at the same percentage rate, no matter how high or low their income. A proportional tax system mean that everyone experiences the same tax rate, whether low, middle, or high-income. This form of tax is quite different than a progressive tax system, which involves different…
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Progressive Tax

A progressive tax involves taxing lower-income citizens at a lower rate than higher-income citizens. As a member of a society with a progressive tax, the tax rate you are placed in is based on your income—whether you can afford to pay a certain tax level. Higher-income earners have a greater percentage of their wealth and income taxed. A…
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Ceteris Paribus

Ceteris Paribus is a Latin phrase which literally translates to “holding other things constant”. Petrus Olivi was the first person to use the term with an economic context in 1295. In economics, this phrase is used to mean “all else being equal.” It is used to indicate that one variable can change while we assume that all other variables remain the…
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Income Elasticity of Demand (YED)

Income Elasticity of Demand (YED) is defined as the responsiveness of demand when a consumer's income changes. It is defined as the ratio of the change in quantity demanded over the change in income. The higher the income elasticity, the more sensitive demand for a good is to changes in income. This means that a very high-income elasticity of…
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Cross Price Elasticity of Demand

Cross Price Elasticity of Demand (XED) measures the responsiveness of demand for one good to the change in the price of another good. It is the ratio of the percentage change in quantity demanded of Good X to the percentage change in the price of Good Y. For businesses, XED is an important strategic tool. This elasticity measure can help…
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